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3c-crystals

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Quartz

Technology of quartz production is based on hydrothermal synthesis method, which is perfromed in steel high-capacious autoclaves. Monocrystals grow on seeds immersed in aquous NaOH solution doped by Li2CO3 and NaNO2. There are used standard conditions of pressure and temperature allowing the crystallization growth speed of 0.3-0.4 mm/day under around 1418 MPa.

Similar to other monocrystals, quartz also must meet the requirements. The principle requirements are: orientation, crystal size, high quality factor (Q factor > 106), lack of accretions, cracks and twinning and low density of inclusions in the material. From the economic reason the crystallization is commonly on Y-type seeds it determines (001) planes which are the fastest growing planes. At the request of clients we send photos of quartz product and specific physical and chemical parameters.

Fluorides

CaF2

Calcium fluoride is the main representative of the fluoride crystals group. It has good permeability in a wide spectral range (0.13-10 µm). Due to the low refractive index and the low dispersion this material is important in utraviolet and infrared light techniques. It is used for preparation of windows, prisms and lenses. Additionaly, it is used to manufacture photographic and microscopic objectives, gas analyzers working in infrared, radiation pyrometers and spectrophotometeres.

Doping calcium fluoride by right elements creates laser material.

At the request of clients the 3C company can provide photos of CaF2 product and specific physical and chemical parameters.

BaF2

Barium fluoride is a second representative of the fluoride crystals group, it is also widely used in infrared and ultraviolet technology. Its permeability covers the spectral range of 0.15-15 µm. Despite lower hardness (82 Knopp) and higher water solubility (1.7 g/l at 20ºC), BaF2 is resistance for damage from ultraviolet high energy. Tanks to good transmission of this material in range of ultraviolet to near infrared light, it is used to manufacture various kinds of optical elements such as windows , lenses and prisms working in infrared.

At the request of clients the 3C company can provide photos of BaF2 product and specific physical and chemical parameters.

SiC

SiC 4H, SiC 6H

Silicon carbide (SiC) is a semiconductor with a wide band gap in the range from 2.38 to 3.26 eV depending on the SiC polytype. Thanks to its special physical and chemical properties, such as high filed of avalanche breakdown, high thermal and electrical conductivity, high hardness, thermal and chemical resistance, SiC is an attractive material used construction of high power/frequency electronic devices working at high temperatures. SiC is also used as a substrate material for growing of GaN for electronic application in the microwave range (blue optoelectronics) and homoepitaxy.

Electronic devices constructed based on SiC can operate in conditions in which other silicon-based electron apparatus in no longer possible (working temperature of the transistors and other devices made of silicon is up to 125ºC, while SiC devices can work at temperature above 500ºC). From the point of view of design of electronic devices the most interesting materials are SiC monocrystal with 4H and 6H polytypes, which can be industrially produced in the form of bulk crystals with a diameter up to 100 mm. The 3C company is the only one company in Poland that possesses technological apparatus for growing of SiC crystals using Physical Vapor Transport method.

At the request of clients we send photos of SiC product and specific physical and chemical parameters. The 3C company offers two polytypes:

Oxides

YAG Y3Al5O12 (and dopants)

Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) belongs to the oxide crystals with garnet structure crystallizing in Oh10 – Ia3d space group. Synthetic YAG is commonly used as a matrix for many applications – especially as a solid medium for laser action generation. It is possible to produce material with desired physical and chemical properties by doping YAG material during crystal growing by the Czochralski method.

YAP YAlO3 (and dopants)

Yttrium-aluminum perovskite crystallizes in the orthorhombic syste with Pnma space group. It is biaxial material. Its absorption and emission depend on the crystallographic orientation of the YAP. YAP materials doped with rare earth ions or transition metals are commonly known materials used as; lasers, phosphors, scintillators and thermoluminescence detectors. YAP is also applicable as substrate material. The 3C company offers high quality single crystals of YAP.

LiNbO3 (and dopants)

Lithium niobate crystallizes in a rhombohedral (trigonal) system with a R3C space group. LiNbO3 finds numerous applications thanks to piezoelectric, acoustic, ferroelectric and electro-optical properties. LiNbO3 monocrystal has very low anisotropy of the thermal conductivity coefficient

(LaAlO3)0.3(SrTaAlO6)0.7 LSAT

The 3C company offers high quality crystal of LaAlO3-Sr2TaAlO6 commonly named LSAT. It is used as substrate material; it has good crystallographic structure matching to GaN. LSAT crystallizes in cubic system in Pn-3m space group.

PrAlO3

Praseodymium aluminate (perovskite) crystallizes in the hexagonal system in R-3c space group. At the temperature above 1864K, it occurs in cubic system with ideal perovskite structure. It is used as a substrate material.

LaAlO3

Lanthanum aluminate (perovskite) crystallizes in the hexagonal system in R-3c space group. At the temperature above 833K it appears in a cubic system with ideal perovskite structure. It is isostructural to PrAlO3. The material is widely used as a substrate for superconductors or perovskites deposited by epitaxial techniques. The material has a relatively high dielectric constant (~25)

Spinel MgAl2O4 and dopants

MgAl2O4 crystallizes in the cubic system in Fd-3m space group. MgAl2O4 belongs to the group of spinels. It has high hardness and is resistance to cracking during machining. This spinel has high thermal conductivity. It is used as a substrate for GaN ans as a absorber in laser heads.

YbAG Yb3Al5O12 (and dopants)

Yb3Al5O12 crystallizes in a cubic system in Ia3d space group. This material is a potential application for lase action in the near infrared. It has relatively low thermal conductivity so literature reports say about attempts to use it as a thermal barrier (Thermal Barrier Coating). It is possible to dope YbAG monocrystals by rare ions and transition metal ions.

YVO4 and dopants

The 3C company offers manufacture of high quality vanadates based on matrix doped by Nd ions. It can be YVO4:Nd, LuVO4:Nd, GdVO4:Nd. It is aslo possible to dope this material by other rare earth ions. Vanadates crystallize in the tetragonal system.

CaMoO4

CaMoO4 crystallizes in the tetragonal system in I41a space group. It has the structure of scheelite. It is used as optical filters, laser material (matrix), scintillator and phosphor. CaMoO4 has chemical and thermal stability.

SrxBa1-xNb2O6 (SBN)

The 3C company offers SBN monocrystals, in which the Sr/Ba ration can be changed (in range 0.25-0.75) in order to control ferroelectric properties. SBN has a large electro-optical and pyroelectric coefficient. It crystallizes in the tetragonal system.

CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (CBN)

Ferroelectric materials with tungsten bronze structure have interesting electro-optical, piezoelectrical, pyroelectrical and nonlinear optical properties. Monocrystals doped by transition metals and rare earth metals (i.e. Nd3+, Yb3+) can be applied as a photorefractive material in holography and laser technology. This material is of particular importance in nonlinear optics.

Ca4GdO(BO3)3

GdCa4O(BO3)3 - GdCOB crystallizes in the monoclinic system in Cm space group. It is non-linear crystal and provides a good matrix for second harmonic generation. This material doped by Nd exhibits frequency duplication and generates a green light (532 nm). GdCOB crystal is also piezoelectric and it has linear dependence of resonance frequency on temperature.

SrLaGa3O7 (SLG)

SLG crystallizes in the tetragonal system in P421m space group. It has the melilite structure. The undoped SLG is used as a substrate for high-temperature superconductors. It can be doped by rare earth ions in order to obtain optical properties and laser generation.

At the request of clients the 3C company can provide product photos and specific physical and chemical parameters.

Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG)

Gadolinium gallium granet crystallizes in a cubic system in m3m space group. This granet has good optical. Mechanical and thermal properties. It makes GGG suitable material for application as a component of optoelectronics and substrate for magneto-optical coatings and superonductors (HTSC).

At the request of clients the 3C company can provide product photos and specific physical and chemical parameters.

SrLaAlO4; SrLaGaO4

SrLaAlO4, SrLaGaO4 belong to of crystals with general formula of ABCO4, where A place is occupied by Ca, Sr, Ba; B place by Y or other rare earth metal and C place by Al, Ga or other transition metal. These crystals crystallize in the tetragonal system in I4/mmm space group Because of good fit of lattice parameters and thermal o coefficient, materials are used as substrates for epitaxial layers of high-temperature superconductors. If these materials are doped by luminescent ions, they become active laser material and can be used as laser materials and phosphors.

At the request of the client, the 3C company can provide monocrystals from ABCO4 family with desired composition.

NdGaO3

SrLaGaO4

A3B5

InAs and dopants

GaP and dopants

InP and dopants

GaSb and dopants

GaAs and dopants

ZnGeP2

Topological insulators

Novel Materials

Glasses

SrTiO3 – TiO2 (and dopants)

Glasses doped by nanoparticles

MnTiO3 – TiO2 (and dopants)

Plazmonic materials

TbScO3 – Tb3Sc2Al3O12 (and dopants)

 Plazmonic materials doped by quantum dots

PrAlO3 – PrAl11O18 (and dopants)

ZnO – ZnWO4 (and dopants)

Photonic materials

Bi2O3 – Ag (and dopants)

Metamaterials

ContaCt 3C-Crystals

phone: +48 22 102 50 00

Fax: +48 22 102 50 05

e-mail: 3c@3c-crystals.eu

05-500 Piaseczno,
Stara Iwiczna ul. Słoneczna 116 A

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